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武城县实验中学---知识改变命运

淡泊明志,宁静致远。

 
 
 

日志

 
 

Lesson 61-Lesson 64  

2009-03-28 21:32:57|  分类: 八年级英语(冀教 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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  Lesson 61-Lesson 64

 

Lesson 61:What Was in the Bags?

学习目标:

  1. 四会词及短语:more, most, bad, litter

  2. 识别的词汇及短语:too much, a little bit, sort…into

  3. 句式:In order to make less rubbish, we should…

  4. 情态动词的被动语态。

  5. more, most用来比较的用法。

 

重点语句分析

  1. Almost all of it can be reused and recycled.

    几乎所有的垃圾都可以被再利用或回收。

    can be reused and recycled,情态动词的被动语态。

    由情态动词can /may / must / should 等+be+动词过去分词构成。例:

    The flowers must be watered often.

    这些花必须经常浇水。

    Old people should be taken care of.

    老人应该被照顾。

  2. People throw too much away.

    人们扔掉太多(垃圾)。

    too much, much too, too many用法不同

    too much 修饰不可数名词或形容词、副词比较级。例:

    There was too much rain last year. 去年雨水太多。

    This one is too much bigger than that one.

    这个比那个大多了。

    too much 还可以作一个名词短语,直接放在及物动词后。例:

    Don’t eat too much, or you’ll get fat.

    别吃得太多,否则你会胖的。

    much too “太”,修饰形容词、副词原级。例:

    The radio is much too noisy. Please turn it off.

    收音机太吵了,请关掉它。

    too many “太多”,修饰可数名词复数。例:

    There are too many cars.

    有太多的车。

  3. There is more paper than plastic.

    纸比塑料多。

    more是many / much 的比较级,“更多”,后加不可数名词或可数名词复数,即无论可数、不可数名词,比多用more,最多用most。例:

    He has more money than me.

    他比我钱多。

    He has more books than I.

    他比我书多。

    Jim has the most books in his class.

    吉姆在他班书最多。

    但比少不同,不可数名词用less或least“较少”或“最少”,可数名词用fewer, fewest表示“更少、最少”例:

    He has fewer apples than his sister.

     他比妹妹苹果少。

    I have the fewest friends in our class.

    在我们班我的朋友最少。

  4. It’s only a little bit broken.

    它只坏了一点点。

    a little bit强调程度较轻,后面加形容词、副词。

    Today is a little bit hot.

    今天有点热。

  5. It’s not right to waste things.

    浪费东西是不对的。

    it是形式主语,而to waste things是动词不定式,真正主语。

  6. Once I cut my foot on a piece of broken glass.

    有一次我让一块儿碎玻璃划伤了脚。

    on a piece of broken glass 介词短语作地点状语。再如:

    Be careful! Don’t hurt your head on the roof.

    当心,别让房顶蹭碰着你的头。

  7. They put all of the sorted garbage into them for recycling.

    他们把所有分好类的垃圾装进袋子以备回收。

    sorted 是过去分词。作定语。

  8. They only need to throw away a small bag full of garbage.

    他们只需要扔掉满满一小袋垃圾。

  9. In order to make less rubbish, we should__.

    为了减少污染,我们应该______。

    in order to 表示目的“以便,为了”。

    In order to get there on time, we should get up early.

    为了按时到那,我们应该早起。

    In order to make less rubbish, we should have no-car-day.

    为了减少污染,我们应该有无车日。

Lesson 62  Take Short Showers!

学习目标:

  1. 识别的词汇及短语:can, take showers, make …into.

  2. 动词不定式的否定式。

 

重点词语解释

  1. I don’t worry about it too much.

    我并不太担心污染。

    worry about 担心,worry是动词,+about后加宾语。

    例:He is worrying about his son.

    他在担心儿子。

    worried 是形容词“担心的”,常和系词连用。例:

    He looks worried.

    他看起来很担心。

    He is worried about his study.

    他担心学习。

    Don’t be worried about your mother. She is OK.

    别担心你妈妈,她没事的。此句也可以表示为:

    Don’t worry about your mother. She is OK.

  2. I try not to waste water.

    我尽力不去浪费水。

    try to do sth. 尽力做某事。

    try not to do sth. 尽力不做某事,not to do 是动词不定式的否定形式,即在“to”前加“not”。例:

    Tell the children not to play football in the street.

    告诉孩子们不要在街上踢足球。

    如果是省“to”的那种不定式直接在动词前加“not”.

    let /make / have sb. not do sth.

    Let them not go out.

    让他们别出去。

    另外:try还可以有try doing sth. 尝试做某事。

    try one’s best to do sth. 尽力做…

  3. I take short showers. 我洗澡时间短。

    洗澡还可以表达为:have a bath / take a bath

  4. Then those waste things get made into new things.

    然后这些废物被制成新的东西。

    get在此句中相当于动词be的用法,后面跟过去分词形式made作表语。例:

    He didn’t get hurt.

    他没有受伤。

    The car got struck in the mud.

    小车陷到泥里了。

  5. It makes the least pollution of all types of transportation.

    在所有的交通工具中,自行车的污染是最少的。

    the least 最少的,least是little的最高级,在此句中作形容词,所以前面必须加“the”。例:

    He has the least money of all.

    所有人中他钱最少。

 

Lesson 63   Garbage Is Interesting!

学习目标:

  1. 掌握的词汇及短语:walk, take a seat.

  2. 识别的词汇及短语:clean up, lid, make…out of, take a trip.

 

重点语句分析:

  1. On Tuesday, Danny, Brian and I started a school yard clean-up.

    在周二,丹尼、布莱恩和我开始了校园大扫除。

    clean-up,名词,“扫除,清理”。

  2. We picked up any garbage we saw.

    我们拾起看到的任何垃圾。

    any用来肯定句中表示“任何的”,强调。

    we saw 做定语从句,修饰garbage.

  3. We sort all of it into paper, plastic, metal, glass and others.

    我们把这些垃圾分为纸、塑料、金属、玻璃和其它类别。

    sort…into…,“将事物分类、整理”。sort是动词。例:

    Let’s sort these books into Chinese, English, maths and others.

    让我们把这些书分成语文、英语、数学和别的。

    △sort作名词,“种类、类型”,相当于type和kind。例:

    What kind / sort of book are you reading?

    你在看哪类书?

  4. We will see where the city workers sort all of our garbage for recycling.

    我们将看到环卫工人把垃圾分类再利用的场所。

    此句是宾语从句where…for recycling作see的宾语。

  5. Our teacher also taught us about how garbage is recycled.

    老师还教我们如何再利用垃圾。

    此句是宾语从句,因为从句中说的是客观事实,所以用一般现在时。

  6. Today, Danny made a car out of garbage!

    今天,丹尼用垃圾做了一辆汽车。

    make …out of …,“用…制成…”。例:

    We made some hats out of the waste materials.

    我们用这些废材料制成了帽子。

  7. When you write something, don’t forget to use both sides of the paper.

    当你写东西时,别忘了使用纸的两面。

    both sides 可以表达为:either side 或each side.

    注意side的单、复数。例:

    There are some trees on both sides of the road.

    路两边都是树。也可以说

    There are some trees on each side / either side of the road.

 

Lesson 64  What Do You Know?

    本课是复习课,主要有以下几项复习内容:

  1. 词汇:

    a bit of, bit, fix (repair, mend), less, least, more, most, pick up, sort(sort …into), take out, throw away, touch, waste.

  2. 提供帮助的交际用语:

    Can I help you?

    What can I do for you? Yes, please.

    Thanks for your help. Thank you all the same.

  3. 语法

    宾语从句(I)

    宾语从句指的是用作宾语的从句。即动词的宾语是由一个句子来承当。例:

    I think he is at home.

    我想他在家。

    在学习宾语从句中时通常把握三大点:即时态、语序和引导词。

    (1)引导词,通常有三组,即that, if (whether),和特殊疑问句中的疑问词变为宾语从句中的引导词,如what, when, whose, where, how等。

    例:I think that he will come tomorrow.

    我想他明天会来。

    (that通常引导的是由陈述句变成的宾语从句,that 没有意义,只起连接作用,所以可以省去。)例:

    I know (that)he is here.

    我知道他在这。

    if / whether 通常是将一般疑问句变为宾语从句的引导词。例:

    I wonder if (whether)they have come here.

    我想知道他们是否来这了。

    (Does your sister like English? I want to know.)

    I want to know if / whether your sister likes English.

    when / where / who/ whose / what 等是将特殊疑问句转变为宾语从句的引导词。例:

    I want to know when we’ll go to Beijing.

    我想知道我们何时去北京。

    Can you tell me where your father works?

    你能告诉我你父亲在哪工作吗?

    Do you know where your teacher lives?

    你知道你们老师住哪吗?

    (How old is your father? Can you tell me?)

    Can you tell me how old your father is?

    (2)语序:在宾语从句中,无论主句是什么形式(陈述句还是疑问句)

    从句都用陈述语序,即陈述句的形式。例:

    Can you tell me what your name is?

    你能告诉我你叫什么名字吗?

    (3)时态,如果主句为现在时,从句可以选择相应的多个时态。例:

   

    如果主句为过去时,从句应和主句保持一致。即用过去时的某一时态。例:

    He said he had been to Beijing.

    他说他去过北京。

    He said they would come tomorrow.

    他说他们明天会来。

    He said they were playing football then.

    他说那时他们在踢球。

    但如果从句表示客观实事或真理性的句子,不随主句改变,常用一般现在时表示。例:

    The teacher tells (told)us that the earth goes around the sun.

    老师告诉我们地球围绕太阳转。

    总之,宾语从句的学习的关键之点就是时态、语序和引导词。

 

【模拟试题】(答题时间:60分钟)

一. 词汇:

A. 根据所给汉语完成句子。

  1. Remember when you ______(丢失)your wallet yesterday.

  2. Don’t ______(扔掉)that piece of paper.

  3. We should ______(关心)our environment.

  4. His father ______(鼓励)him to sing well.

  5. A worker fixed ______(渗漏的)toilets.

  6. A thousand kilograms of ______(再利用)paper saves seventeen trees!

  7. When something ______(坏了), you should repair it.

  8. He has a big bag ______(装满)garbage.

  9. I ______(散步)in the street yesterday evening.

  10. I’ll ______(开始工作)

 

二. 单项选择:

(    )1. How often do you _____ a bath?

    A. make         B. made          C. take           D. took

(    )2. What can you do ______ water?

    A. to save              B. saves         C. saved         D. saving

(    )3. Where does he _____?

    A. live            B. lives           C. living         D. lived

(    )4. The air and water ______ clean now.

    A. is        B. are             C. was           D. were

(    )5. I try _______ bother (打扰)you.

    A. to              B. not to         C. to not         D. not

(    )6. She has done some good things ______ the environment.

    A. in              B. with           C. to              D. for

(    )7. This place is different _______ that one.

    A. with           B. for             C. from          D. than

(    )8. I found a cup with a ______ handle.(柄)

    A. break         B. broken              C. breaking            D. broke

(    )9. He has ______ glass.

    A. a little         B. a few         C. a bit           D. a bit of

(    )10. That man is still ______.

    A. live            B. life             C. lives           D. alive

 

三. 句型转换:

  1. I went there once a month. (对画线部分提问)

    ______ ______ did you ______ there?

  2. I take short showers to save water. (同上)

    ____ ____ you ______ to save water?

  3. Tom lives in a clean city. (变为感叹句)

    ____ ______ ______ _____ Tom lives in!

  4. The city which Mike lives is very clean. (同上)

    ____ ____ ______ _____ which Mike lives!

  5. I go to school by bus every day. (对画线部分提问)

    _____ do you ______ to school every day?

 

四. 完形填空:

    Every day some people are killed while they are crossing the roads.   1   of these people are old people and children. Old people are often killed (被杀死)because they can’t see or   2   very well. Children are killed because they are not   3  . They forgot to look and listen before they   4   the roads.

    A car or a bus can’t stop   5  . If a car is going very fast, it will travel many metres   6   it stops. Some people don’t always understand this. They think a car can stop   7   a few seconds. It is difficult to   8   how fast a car is moving. The only way to cross the roads safely (安全地)is to look   9   ways, right and left. Then if the roads are   10  , you can cross them.

    Every one of us must be more careful when you are crossing a road no matter (无论)you are a driver or a passer-by(过路人). And all the drivers must drive more carefully and slowly when they are driving.

                     A                          B                          C                   D

(    )1. Much                       Most                     More              None

(    )2. say                           to hear                  shout             hear

(    )3. care                         carefully                careful           clever

(    )4. across                      come                    cross             go

(    )5. fast                          quickly                  quick             carefully

(    )6. before                      while                     after               but

(    )7. in                             on                         at                   after

(    )8. watch                       look                      listen              know

(    )9. all                                   each                      both               either

(    )10. full                         empty                   busy                     beautiful

 

五. 阅读理解:

    He and his wife drove across the tropical grassland (热带草原). They would go where they worked with lots of food on the truck, far into the grassland. Just at that moment, there appeared (出现)a hungry lion, running after them all the time. They were very worried and what was more, the truck was stuck (陷入)in a pit (坑). Someone had to go out of the truck to pull it. But the lion stayed outside, looking straight at the husband and the wife.

    They spent the whole night in the truck. The next day they found the lion still outside. They tried every way to frighten(吓唬)away the lion, but they failed.

    The sun is shining brightly high up in the sky. With the time going by, the wife began to feel terrible. She knew what she had to do. She kissed her husband and then opened the door, jumped out, and ran, shouting, “Drive the truck off. Be quick!”

    After her leaping at the lion, he felt heart-broken. How could he see…!“Drive off! My goodness!”He started the truck again and madly drove to the lion. But…

    This story was told by an old man who once worked in Africa to help to build roads.

(    )1. Why were the husband and the wife worried?

    A. Because they were far into the grassland.

    B. Because a lion was running after them.

    C. Because the truck was stuck in a pit

    D. All of the above.

(    )2. Which of the following is right?

    A. The lion didn’t want to leave.

    B. The lion left later.

    C. They frightened the lion away.

    D. They killed the lion.

(    )3. What was the weather like that day?

    A. Fine and windy.

    B. Cloudy.

    C. Rainy.

    D. Fine and hot.

(    )4. The wife ran out to ______.

    A. drive the lion away

    B. save her husband

    C. look for help

    D. look for water

(    )5. The woman _________ at last.

    A. returned to the truck

    B. lost her way

    C. lost her life

    D. started the truck

 

六. 作文:

    以“Keep Our School Clean” 为班会的主题写一篇发言稿,词数80左右。


【试题答案】

一. 1. lost              2. throw away              3. take care of

  4. encouraged            5. leaky          6. recycled

  7. breaks                   8. full of         9. took a walk

  10. get to work

二. 1-5 CAABB           6-10 DCBDD

三. 1. How often did you go there?

  2. What do you do to save water?

  3. What a clean city Tom lives in!

  4. How clean the city which Mike lives!

  5. How do you go to school every day?

四. 1-5 BDCCB           6-10 AADCB

五. 1-5 DADBC

Good afternoon, everyone!

    We are studying in this school. It’s our duty to keep it clean and tidy. It’s not good to spit in the public places, such as in the library, in the classroom, We should neither draw pictures on the walls nor throw any litter onto the ground. I think we must make it a rude to do some cleaning every day. If everyone tries his best to do something useful for our school, I’m sure our school will be more beautiful. That’s all. Thank you.

【励志故事】

帮助别人就是善待自己

    奥黛丽·赫本有一项非常有意思的记录:她从来没看过心理医生。

    一名叫史塔勒的医生对此产生了浓厚的兴趣。因为他常在深夜接到一些著名主持人和影视明星的电话,要求他给予心理上的帮助。这些人都是衣食不虞,崇拜者如云,看上去是世界上最幸运的人。史塔勒作为心理学家,很想从赫本这儿找到一些研究上的突破。

结果他发现,赫本曾做过67次亲善大使,在1956年到1963年间,她几乎每个月都到码头、监狱和黑人社区做义工。有一次,她谢绝了贝尔公司每小时5万美元的庆典邀请,去医院给一位小男孩做免费护理服务。史塔勒对这一发现很重视,他认为这里面蕴涵着心理学方面的某种东西。他推而广之,对其他热心公益的名人进行研究,最后发现,这些人很少有怪癖及不良记录,他们同赫本一样,几乎没看过心理医生。

    这个世界也许存在着这么一条公理:一个人从事公益活动,必定可以得到等值的精神愉悦。你帮助别人的越多,自己获得的快乐也就越多。

 

 

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